Blood is never “just blood” & pathogens are extremely diverse
Most people are unaware of the exposure risks of dealing with blood and bodily fluids. Any time these biohazards are present, proceed with caution. These risks can be effectively limited by wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) and following established remediation and disinfection protocols that are required by law and set by industry best practices.
It is important for any company or organization to understand that they are responsible for their employees’, customers’, and members’ safety when it comes to biohazard exposure.


The CDC estimates that 3.8 million workers in the health care industry and related occupations are at risk of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens and other potentially infectious material. This number increases when you factor in employees from other industries like hospitality, janitorial services, and disaster restoration. Given the risks associated with biohazards, organizations have a legal and ethical obligation to protect their employees and customers. The following outlines a few key regulations and guidelines that pertain to biohazards. A comprehensive list of protocols can be obtained by directly contacting the South African CDC.

Note: employers are responsible for all costs pertaining to training, compliance, equipment, vaccinations (where appropriate) , and testing.

Bloodborne Pathogen (BBP) Standard: OSHA protocol specifically targeted at mitigating exposures to and damage from potentially infectious pathogens.

Universal Precautions: Employers who may expose their employees to blood and biological materials are required to assume that all blood and biological materials contain potentially infectious bloodborne pathogens such as Hepatitis B, HIV, Tuberculosis, SARS etc.

Mandatory Hepatitis B Vaccinations: Employers must ensure that employees are trained about the vaccine and vaccination, including efficacy, safety, method of administration, and the benefits of vaccination.

Respiratory Standards:

Required respiratory medical screening by physician

Personal, full-face respirators that are fit-tested for individual employees

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Standards:

Recommended equipment includes gloves, full-body suits, booties, safety goggles or full-face respirators. All equipment must be changed at regular intervals to prevent employee exposure and cross-contamination

Initial and continual training to appropriately don and don off equipment

Mandatory Heat-Stress Protocols: Protocol designed to prevent an employee from suffering a heat-stress injury caused by working within a semi-permeable suit while performing manual labour.

Written Exposure Plan: Plans must be updated and reviewed annually with employee participation.

Annual OSHA Compliance Training: Required for all employees in BBP, PPE, HAZCOM, and respiratory protection.


There are several regulations that address how blood and biological or hazardous materials should be handled and disposed of.

The CDC (Centre for disease control) and NIOH (National Institute for occupational health) have established guidelines for how blood and biological materials must be treated to render them as harmless as possible.

The CDC has determined that pathogens cannot be properly disinfected unless an EPA-rated disinfectant or tuberculocide has been sprayed on clean, hard surfaces.

Remediation companies cleaning up blood spills must:

  1. use EPA-rated chemicals
  2. strictly adhere to the directions provided by the chemical manufacturer which are the conditions under which the EPA approved the disinfectant
  3. remove any biological materials from the hard surface prior to using the disinfectant; and
  4. spray only hard, non-permeable surfaces.

If the above conditions cannot be met, then the surface or item cannot be disinfected and must be properly removed and disposed of as regulated medical waste.

The CDC, in conjunction with OSHA, issued an opinion letter stating that blood on carpeting cannot be disinfected. Carpet is a soft, permeable surface and no disinfectant has been rated by the EPA as adequate enough to properly disinfect soft surfaces. Therefore, an affected carpet cannot be disinfected, but must instead be removed and disposed of as regulated medical waste.

The EPA, OSHA, and national environmental agencies all have specific regulations tied to how medical waste should be handled, packaged, labelled, transported, manifested, and disposed of.

Regulated medical waste must be placed in a red bag of a certain textile strength that is labelled with the universal biohazard symbol.

The red bag must be placed in a secondary container that is leak-proof.

Containers must be properly labelled and must be tracked through a chain of custody manifesting forms.

The waste must then be disposed of according to hazmat standards, which typically provides for disposal through autoclaving or incineration.

In South Africa, those who generate, transport, store, or dispose of medical waste must be licensed by the appropriate councils and associations.

Employees must be trained on the regulations under the license and must adhere to proper exposure regulations when handling the medical waste boxes.

All of these regulations and guidelines serve as the foundation for the processes that Hazgiene utilizes when performing biohazard remediation services.


Biohazards refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans. The four categories of biohazards are Microbiological, Human Bodily Fluids, Animal wastes and Pathological waste. These biohazards, if improperly treated, can cause serious health issues leading to death. They can even set off epidemics.


Some strains of E. coli can live for more than 15 weeks on wet surfaces and more than 4 days on hard, dry surfaces. Almost everyone has some risk of infection. An estimated 45,000 people are infected each year, and 740 are fatal.

Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that is typically transmitted by contact with an infected person, contaminated food or water, or by touching contaminated surfaces. Norovirus can survive for days or weeks on hard surfaces.

C. difficile is a bacterium that can live for months on hard surfaces and fabrics. Each year about a half million people get sick from C. diff. In recent years, these infections have become more severe and difficult to treat, leading to more than 29,000 deaths.

MRSA, a Super Bug, is caused by a type of staph bacteria that has become resistant to the antibiotics used to treat ordinary staph infections. MRSA is highly contagious and can survive for weeks on surfaces.

Almost 4 million people in South Africa are infected with Hepatitis A B and C. Hepatitis B is 100 times more infectious than the AIDS virus, while Hepatitis C can survive outside the body at room temperature for up to 3 weeks. Any blood spills, including dried blood, can be infectious.

There are an estimated 7.7 million people in South Africa living with HIV. This is the highest in the world. Every year 250 000 people are infected.